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UMMA / Imkariyen* ifṛensisen deg Lɛiraq
Date of publication at Tlaxcala: 20/12/2010
Original: Des mercenaires français en Irak ?
Translations available: Español 

Imkariyen* ifṛensisen deg Lɛiraq

Gilles Munier

Translated by  Omar Mouffok عمر موفق

 

* imkariyen: mercenaires

Deg 1989, Iɣlanen Yeddukklen (Nations Unies) gan yiwen n leɛqed ay igedlen (imenɛen) i lejnas assekcem, asseqdec, axelleṣ akked usselmed n yemkariyen (mercenaires). Leɛqed-a yeqbel-it Wegraw Amatu n Yeɣlanen Yeddukklen yerna stenyant-t 32 n tmura. D acu kan, mi ara nwali ayen ay la iḍerrun ussan-a deg wemgaru (ṭṭrad) n Lɛiraq, ad nger tamawt leɛqed-a ur yettuqader, ur t-id-giren lejnas deg leḥsab. Ɣas ma yella Dominique de Villepin yeɣra-d inaw-nnes (discours) mechuṛen n 2003 deg Yeɣlanen Yeddukklen akken ad d-yessken ajbad ay tejbed Fṛansa iman-nnes seg taluft n Lɛiraq, maca ass-a, Fṛansa tettekkay deg wemgaru n tmurt-a s leqdic n wenmahal-nnes (ambassadeur) akked tkebbaniyin-nnes n « laman ».

Imkariyen (mercenaires) deg Lɛiraq


Ɣef wakken nettwali, ula d Nicolas Sarkozy yebɣa ad yettekki deg yimenɣi mgal Yiɛiraqiyen ay yettḥuddun tamurt-nsen. Yuɣ lḥal, Sarkozy yefka ttesriḥ i « teṛmisin [tikebbaniyin] n laman » tifṛensisin akken ad qedcent deg Beɣdad, yerna s waya, yessekcem Fṛansa deg yiwen n wenrar d aweɛṛan ay izemren ad d-yeglu s yixeṣṣaren imeqranen. « Iɛessasen uqriben [gardes du corps] » ifṛensisen ay yettḥuddun, ussan-a, irgazen n yiweẓla (hommes d’affaires) deg Lɛiraq, ttwalin-ten Yiɛiraqiyen d imkariyen (mercenaires), swaswa kan am yiqeddacen-nni n wazal n 40 n teṛmisin tiserdasiyin tusligin (sociétés militaires privées) tibeṛṛaniyin ay d-iɣeḍlen rrebrab ɣef yimezdaɣen n Lɛiraq. Ɣas akken, Boris Boillon, anmahal (ambassadeur) n Fṛansa deg Lɛiraq, yenna-d laman yeqqel igerrez deg Lɛiraq, yerna yeckeṛ-d ula d ayen ay ttgen yiɣallen imarikaniyen ay yeṭṭfen tamurt akked leḥkem igerrzen n udabu aɛiraqi ay isennden ɣer Iṛan.

Abrid n yimenɣi n Yimarikaniyen

Tiṛmisin tusligin (sociétés privées) n laman n Fṛansa am Geos (tameqrant akk deg Fṛansa), Gallice-Security akked Anticip SAS iṣaḥ-itent-id kan ssuq d amecṭuḥ deg Lɛiraq, imi amur ameqran seg ssuq-a uwyent-tt teṛmisin timarikaniyin, tibriṭaniyin ed tustṛaliyin. Ma d iqeddacen n « laman » n teṛmisin tifṛensisin werɛad ur uwiḍen ad ilin d imenɣayen (iqettalen) iqeddcen s yedrimen akken llan wid n teṛmisin n tmura-a ay d-nebder, am wakken ur llin d iserdasen ay yettnadin ad ttekkin deg tlufa tiweɛṛanin am wid-nni ay yella yesseqdac-iten Bob Denard (amkari-nni mechuṛen n Fṛansa). Geos d taṛmist ay d-yesnulfa Stéphane Gérardin, ay yellan iqeddec deg sserbis n leqdic n DGSE, yerna ass-a, yeḥkem-itt ujiniṛal Jean Heinrich - ay yellan d imḍebber aqbur deg Tmehla n Wumel Aserdasi [Direction du renseignement militaire. Taṛmist n Gallice yessedday-itt Frédéric Gallois, d imḍebber aqbur n GIGN (Groupe d’intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale). Ma d taṛmist n Anticip yessedday-itt Richard Terzan, ay yellan iqeddec, zik, deg teṛmist n usenkid [assurance] Lloyd’s, yerna yella yelha-d s « yimihiyen usligen [risques spéciaux] » deg teṛmist-a. Akk tiṛmisin-a qeddcent s ussirem n ubeddel n lqanun-nni afṛensis n 14 Yebrir 2003 « i lmend n wegdal [amnaɛ] n leqdic n yemkariyen [mercenaires] ». Yuɣ lḥal, aselway afṛensis yebda yessekcam, cwiṭ, cwiṭ, ttesriḥ n leqdic n yemkariyen deg lqanun afṛensis. Naqal, Sarkozy yeckeṛ « abrid n tmeddurt , Yimarikaniyen », maca ass-a, la iɛerreḍ ad aɣ-d-yeckeṛ « abrid n yimenɣi n Yimarikaniyen », akken ad d-yenna G.H. Bricet des Vallons deg wedlis-nnes « Lɛiraq, d tamurt n yemkariyen [Iraq, terre mercenaire]».

Adlis n G.H. Bricet des Vallons « Lɛiraq, d tamurt n yemkariyen [Iraq, terre mercenaire]»

Ssuq agraɣlan n yemkariyen (mercenaires) ad ilin deg-s azal n 100 n yimelyaṛen n yidulaṛen deg 10 n yiseggasen-a ay d-itteddun, yerna, deg wussan-a n tezɣint tudmist (crise économique), wid ay yebɣan ad yejjujeg ssuq-a, ttafen-d tisebbiwin s tdamsa : « ur yessefk ɣef tmurt-nneɣ ad tejj ssuq aydeg llan yedrimen am wa ad as-t-awyent tmura niḍen », « idrimen n temḥaddit n tmurt ad ttusqedcen s webrid igerrzen ugar » yerna « aya ad aɣ-yejj ad d-naf aqeddic i yiserdasen ay ifuken amecwaṛ-nsen deg yigen [armée] … aya ad aɣ-yejj ad nessenqes amḍan n wid ur nesɛi aqeddic » … S waya, iban aql-aɣ la ntteddu ɣer tallit aydeg anabaḍ (lḥukuma) ad teqbel ad tɛemmed i teṛmisin (tikebbaniyin) n laman ad qqlent ad ttnaɣent deg wenrar deg wemkan n yiserdasen. Yuɣ lḥal, taṛmist n Vitruve DS n Paris (ay yeṭṭef Didier Raoul, d amenzaḍ aqbur n yiɣallen usligen [forces spéciales]) tuweḍ arma ay tessuter seg unabaḍ afṛensis ad yeqbel ad yessenz Aɣerbaz n Yiɣallen n Yimessersa (parachutistes) n Pau. Ccwi kan imi Martine Lignières-Cassou, tamazant tanemlayt (députée socialiste) n Béarn, yerna d tamaslaḍt n useqqamu n temḥaddit n tmurt, tugi, twala anect-a « ur yezmir ad yettwaqbel », yerna lemmer ad d-yili, ad yekkes lḥeṛma ɣef tmurt n Fṛansa.

Iqeddacen ifṛensisen deg teṛmisin (tikebbaniyin) n « laman » tanglusaksiyin

Skud mazal ur yettubeddel lqanun ara iɛemmden i Yefṛensisen ad sɛun tiṛmisin (tikebbaniyin) n yemkariyen (mercenaires), anabaḍ (lḥukuma) afṛensis mazal-it yeqqen taṭṭiwin-nnes ɣef yiserdasen ifṛensisen iqburen ay iqeddcen deg teṛmisin tiserdasiyin tusligin (privées) n tmura tanglusaksiyin. « Franck Hugo » d yiwen seg-sen, yeqdec d amkari deg Lɛiraq gar 2003 ed 2004. Zik, yella d alijuni (légionnaire), yerna yettekka ula deg terbaɛt-nni n Bob Denard ay iɛerḍen ad ttin adabu n Tegzirin n Qamar deg 1995. Deg tallit-nnes n leqdic deg Lɛiraq, ad yili yettekka deg lemcawṛat gar DGSE n Beɣdad akked Yigen Ineslem n Lɛiraq i lmend n berru n Christian Chesnot ed Georges Malbrunot ay yettwaṭṭfen d imeṛhan deg tmurt-a.

Llant daɣen snat n teṛmisin tiserdasiyin tusligin (sociétés militaires privées) timarikaniyin ay yesɛan imḍebbren-nsent d ifṛensisen : yiwet d EHC (Earthwind Holding Corporation), imḍebber-nnes d Bruno Trinquier ; ma d tis snat d Eagle Black Group. Tiṛmisin-a, deg snat yid-sent, ssekcament-d imkariyen (mercenaires) seg Fṛansa. Taṛmist tustṛalit n Unity Resources Group (ay yesɛan lbiru-nnes deg Dubai) tesseqdac, ula d nettat, ifṛensisen. Unity Resources Group tettwassen s yixeṣṣaren ay tga deg wegdud aɛiraqi. Taṛmist-a tqerres s rrṣaṣ 38 n tikkal ɣef yiɣarimen (civils) iɛiraqiyen … yerna, d ayen ibanen, yal tikkelt aydeg ara tqerres, tella tsebba. Taṛmist-a tettucaṛeɛ deg Ustṛalya, maca ur ɣef tmeddurin-nni n Yiɛiraqiyen ay iṛuḥen d asfel, wanag ɣef ljal kan n tmattant n 3 n yidiplumatiyen ustṛaliyen ay iqerrben “aṭas” ɣer tkeṛwas n teṛmist-a. Deg tgara, ur yessefk ad nettu Philippe Legorjus ay yellan d amenzaḍ deg GIGN yerna d imḍebber n teṛmist n Atlantic Intelligence. Legorjus yesnulfa-d yiwet n teṛmist tucrikt akked teṛmist tabriṭanit n Stirling Group i wakken ad yeqdec deg ssuq n “uḥuddu seg yimihiten igraɣlanen [risques internationaux]” – d abrid uḥṛic ayyes ara yekcem deg ssuq n yemkariyen war ma yeffeɣ i lqanun-nni afṛensis n 2003.

Tirebbaɛ n “ṣṣeḥwa” akked yemkariyen : yiwen n yimenɣi !

Deg Lɛiraq, taṛmist (takebbanit) n Anticip tḥesseb-d taɛessast-nnes s 6000 n yidulaṛen i wass, yerna lemmer amdan-nni ara yettuɛassen ad yeffeɣ seg temdint, taɛessast-nnes ad tili ɣlayet ugar. Taswiɛt-a, ur yelli wergaz n yiweẓla (homme d’affaires) [afṛensis] ayɣef mmɣen yemsellḥen deg Lɛiraq, yerna ccwi imi ur d-teḍri tedyant am ta. Maca d acu ara yeḍrun lemmer tirebbaɛ n Lqaɛida deg Tgersaft (Mésopotamie) ad gent ayen ggullent ad t-gent ? Deg wass n 25 Meɣres yezrin, tarbaɛt taɛiraqit n Terni n Ujahed, Aslelli ed Ussukkes Aɣelnaw (JLNSF) ay yeḥkem Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri, teggul ad twet tiṛmisin tibeṛṛaniyin yerna tenna-d tettwali-tent d aḥric seg yiɣallen n tuṭṭfa. Ɣas akken, taṛmist n “laman” n Gallice teddukkel akked yemḍebber n terbaɛt timselleḥt n “ṣṣeḥwa” n lɛeṛc n Abou Rish, i lmend n uḥuddu n uneɣlaf aɛiraqi n tɣawsiwin n beṛṛa. Yessefk kan ad d-nesmekti imḍebber n lɛeṛc-a d yiwen seg lewḥuc imeqranen ay tesseqdac CIA deg ccwal n Lɛiraq, yerna tadukli-a gar teṛmist tafṛensist akked yemḍebber-a d ayen izemren ad d-yawey uguren imeqranen ula i Yefṛensisen yellan deg Lɛiraq.

Imkariyen ay iqeddcen deg Lɛiraq ttekkayen

deg tmenɣiwin war ma iɛuqeb-iten lqanun

S waya, Awanak (ddula) n Lɛiraq testenya leɛqed-nnes amezwaru akked teṛmist (takebbanit) tafṛensist n laman s wazal n 500.000 n yidulaṛen. D acu kan, leɛqed am wa ur yesɛi azal ameqran ma nquren-it ɣer leɛqudat niḍen ay d-yettilin deg wenrar-a, yerna Gallice ur telli mechuṛet deg wenrar n “laman”, wanag aneɣlaf aɛiraqi n tɣawsiwin n beṛṛa, akurdi Hoshyar Zebari, yebɣa kan ad yili leɛqed-a d asefk (cadeau) i umeddakel-nnes Bernard Kouchner. Maca anwa ara iḍemnen “iɛessasen uqriben [gardes du corps]” ifṛensisen ur sseqdacen leslaḥ-nsen mgal Yiɛiraqiyen akken ad ḥudden kra n tfagla (délégation) ? Deg tegnit am tin, Fṛansa ur tettusemmay tettḥuddu ɣef yiman-nnes, wanag tettusemma tekcem deg yimenɣi iledyen, yerna tebna ɣef uxeṣṣar ay tt-yettṛajun. D aya ay wuɣur ara aɣ-tessiweḍ tikli taderɣalt n Sarkozy deg Lɛiraq, ay yettnadin kan ɣef yedrimen. Lemmer ad yefk lqanun n Fṛansa ttesriḥ akken ad d-nnulfunt teṛmisin tiserdasiyin tusligin (sociétés militaires privées), aya ad yernu kan ad yessimes tugna n Fṛansa deg tmura n beṛṛa.

Timerniwt :

Lɛiraq d « tamurt n rrbeḥ » tamaynut

Azal n 40 n yemḍebbren n teṛmisin (tikebbaniyin) tifṛensisin ay iqelɛen seg Paris ɣer Beɣdad akken ad rzun ɣef Lɛiraq. Mi uwḍen ɣer tmurt-a, llan tteddun s tɛessast deg tkeṛwas timderrɛin (blindées) akked tkeṛṛust n tɛessast n yemsellḥen n Gallice. Deg teswiɛt-nni, « Axxam n ccṛeɛ aɛlayan n uɛaqeb » deg Lɛiraq yeḥkem s tmattant i Tareq Aziz, Saadoun Shaker akked 3 n yemḍebbren iqburen niḍen n ukabar n Baɛt n Lɛiraq. Deg teswiɛt-nni aydeg Boris Boillon, anmahal (ambassadeur) afṛensis deg Lɛiraq (ay iḥesben iman-nnes d Rambo), yella icennu ɣef Lɛiraq « d tamurt n rrbeḥ tamaynut », deg teswiɛt-nni aydeg taneɣlaft n tnezzut tuffiɣt (commerce extérieur) Anne-Marie Idrac, tella trezzu ɣef Temzikkent Tagraɣlant n Beɣdad s tɛessast n yemkariyen (mercenaires) n Triple Canopy, iɣallen n « laman » n Lɛiraq mmɣen ɣef teklizt (église) taseryanit n Massa-nneɣ-n-Weslak-Amaɣlal, anda ay nɣan ama d imsellḥen, ama d imeṛhan-nni yettwaṭṭfen daxel-is (mmuten azal n 50 seg-sen).

Azekka-nni, ṭṭerḍqent tleffuɣin (lbumbat) deg kra n yizenqan iciɛiyen yerna rnan mmuten ugar n medden. Aneɣlaf afṛensis n tɣawsiwin n beṛṛa [Bernard Kouchner] iwet-d deg tenṭagin-a (attentats), maca ur d-yenni acemma ɣef tmenɣiwt n Tarek Aziz akked yimeddukal-nnes, ɣas akken llan akk zik-nni d « imeddukal n Fṛansa ». Ad d-nesmekti kan Abugaṭu Vergès yenna-d, deg yiwen n usarag (conférence) ay iga akked tmeṭṭut n Shaker, deg wass n 12 Tubeṛ, deg Paris : aḥkam s tmattant yebṭel-it udabu uɛḍil n tmura n temsisit (coalition) deg Lɛiraq deg 2003, asmi ay ttwaṭṭfen yemḍebbren-a, s waya, ur yessefk ad yettwaḥkem fell-asen s tmattant, ɣas ma yella rran-d aḥkam n tmattant seg wass-nni s ass-a !
 





Courtesy of Gilles Munier
Source: http://www.france-irak-actualite.com/article-des-mercenaires-fran-ais-en-irak-62220293.html
Publication date of original article: 02/12/2010
URL of this page : http://www.tlaxcala-int.org/article.asp?reference=3050

 

Tags: AmkariImkariyenLɛiraqAɛiraqiIɛiraqiyenWemkariYemkariyenUɛiraqiYiɛiraqiyenAmkari afṛensisWemkari afṛensisImkariyen ifṛensisenYemkariyen ifṛensisenTaṛmist n lamanTeṛmist n lamanTiṛmisin n lamanTeṛmisin n lamanAmkari amarikaniWemkari amarikaniImkariyen imarikaniyenYemkariyen imarikaniyenBlackwaterBob Denard
 

 
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